Passport: is generally required for trips to Algeria, the passport must be valid for at least 6 months.
Visa: is generally required
For tourist trips, visas are only issued in the Algerian embassy in Berlin if you speak in person.
For trips to Algeria, a visa must be applied for in good time (at least 2 weeks) before the start of the trip to the Algerian embassy in Berlin or the Algerian general consulate in Bonn. Prior information by phone should be obtained. Application forms are available from the Algerian embassy in Berlin or from the Algerian consulate general in Bonn.
They can be requested in writing, a sufficiently stamped and addressed envelope must be enclosed. Visa fees can be attached to the application as a crossed check.
You can also download a visa application for Algeria here.
The Algerian embassy now only issues tourist visas when applicants travel in northern Algeria.
Entry restrictions: Those who have Israeli visas in their passports must have a second passport issued in order to enter Algeria. No visas are issued at airports or border crossings.
Transit: Transit travelers who fly within 24 hours, have valid documents for the return or onward journey and do not leave the transit room do not need a transit visa. This regulation does not apply to citizens of the Federal Republic of Germany
Application: by post or in person at the responsible consular mission (see Algeria – important addresses).
In Switzerland, visa applications can only be made personally.
Documents: Tourist visa: 2 application forms completed on the PC – 2 current and identical passport photos (no scans) – passport that is still valid for at least 6 months – proof (copy of the insurance certificate) of a foreign health insurance for at least 30,000 euros coverage, repatriation costs and hospitalization – travel booking confirmation – Confirmation letter from the Algerian tour operator – Itinerary – Fee (in cash or by check)
Business Visa: additionally a company letter from the German company about the purpose and duration of the trip with a confirmation of the assumption of costs and the address of the business partner – an invitation from the business partner from Algeria (fax is sufficient).
A postage-paid and addressed envelope, a proof of payment and a registered envelope free of charge should be enclosed with the postal application.
Processing time: by post: at least 14 days up to 3 weeks from receipt of the visa application. Visa applications that have an arrival date within this period will be returned unprocessed.
Visa issuance costs: single entry,
- valid until month: € 60.00
Within the framework of mutual equal treatment, an additional processing fee of 25 euros applies to French, Italian and Danish citizens residing in Germany.
The visa fees and the processing fee will not be refunded in the event of a rejection.
Entry with children:
Germans: Children need their own passport (child’s passport or electronic passport) to enter Algeria.
Austrians: Children must travel with their own passports.
Swiss: Children must travel with their own passport.
The same visa requirements apply to children as to their parents.
For children up to 19 years of age who travel alone or accompanied by only one parent, written permission from the parents or the absent guardian is required.
Vaccinations: Information on international vaccination certificates that are required for entry can be found in the Algeria Health chapter.
Exit permit: An exit permit is required for foreigners who have been in Algeria for more than 3 months.
National currency: 1 Algerian dinar is divided into 100 centimes.
Currency abbreviation: DA, DZD – ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG
Banknotes are in circulation in the values of 1,000, 500 and 200 dinars. The 100 dinars bill is replaced by coins. Coins are used in the nominal amounts of 100, 50, 20, 10 and 5 dinars, less often 1 and 2 dinars coins.
Currency exchange: taking cash in euros or US dollars. is recommended. There are exchange opportunities in banks and larger hotels. With Western Union, money can be sent from abroad to Algeria in the branches of some banks (Société Générale, Post).
Adults must exchange currency worth at least 1,000 DA upon entry (half for travelers under the age of 18, this is usually included in the price for package tours). Every time you exchange money, you receive a receipt and the amount is entered in the currency declaration. The receipt issued must be kept. The form and the receipts must be submitted on departure. The foreign exchange declaration may have to be presented at the hotel to ensure that the dinars for the payment of the hotel bill have been lawfully acquired. If you buy tickets abroad in Algeria, you have to exchange foreign exchange and present the exchange receipt and the declaration. Exchanges outside airports and border posts are limited.
Algerian Dinar Exchange rate:
Currency converter at OANDA
Credit Cards: American Express, Visa and MasterCard are accepted to a very limited extent (in upscale hotels in major cities).
Traveler’s checks: should be in US dollars or euros. They are only accepted in upscale hotels and state souvenir shops in the capital, Algiers.
ATMs: ATMs where you can withdraw money with a credit or debit card are only available in a few places in major cities.
Currency regulations: Foreign currencies have to be declared at the Algerian customs. Proof of use or exchange must be presented on departure. The export of Algerian dinars is strictly prohibited.
Bank opening times: Sun – Thu 8 a.m. – 4.30 p.m.
Health and Diseases
Vaccinations: The health service of the Foreign Ministry recommends protection against tetanus, diphtheria, polio and hepatitis A, for long-term stay over three months also hepatitis B. With special exposure (stay in the country, hunting, jogging, etc.), vaccination protection against rabies and / or typhoid can also be useful. These and other questions should be decided in a personal consultation with the tropical doctor or the vaccinator with tropical and travel medicine experience.
A valid yellow fever vaccination is required when entering a yellow fever area.
HIV / AIDS is a major problem worldwide and can be a danger for everyone who runs the risk of infection: Sexual contact, dirty syringes or cannulas and blood transfusions can then pose a considerable life-threatening risk.
Prophylaxis: Hygienic eating and drinking (only boiled, not warmed up lukewarm) and consistent mosquito repellent (repellents, mosquito net, covering clothing, behavior) can avoid most diarrhea and many other tropical and infectious diseases. This also includes malaria in a few regions of the country. There are other tropical and infectious diseases, but they pose very different threats to travelers.
Medications for prophylaxis against malaria are only useful in special individual cases. Various prescription medications (e.g. malarone, doxycycline, Lariam) are available on the market for malaria prophylaxis. The selection and personal adaptation as well as side effects or intolerance to other medications should be discussed with a tropical or travel doctor before taking chemoprophylaxis.
Medical care in the country is not always comparable to Europe and is occasionally problematic in terms of technology, equipment and / or hygiene. Good European-trained English / French-speaking doctors are also often missing in the periphery. Adequate global health insurance coverage and reliable travel return insurance are strongly recommended. An individual first- aid kit should be taken with you and protected appropriately on the way to the temperature (cold chain?). Here, too, individual advice from a tropical doctor or travel doctor makes sense.
In addition to my general disclaimer, please note the following important note:
A guarantee for the correctness and completeness of the medical information as well as a liability for possible damage cannot be assumed. You stay responsible for your healthy.
Airplane: The national airline Air Algérie flies between numerous locations in Algeria, for travelers, flights to Tamanrasset, Djanet and Ghardaia are the most interesting, since the oases Djanet and Tamanrasset are favorable starting points for the Tassili N’Ajjer plateau and the Hoggar Mountains. Flight bookings with Air Algérie should be confirmed before departure. In the summer, departures to the south can be delayed by sandstorms. Nevertheless, the plane is the most reliable means of transport in the southern regions of the country.
Ship: State ferries connect the port cities of Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Béjaia, Djidjelli, Ghazaouet, Mostaganem, Oran and Skikda.
Rail: The Algerian route network is served by the Société Nationale des Transports Ferroviaires (SNTF). In the north, trains run between Algiers, Oran, Constantine and Annaba. Bechar and Touggourt are also approached.
Cars: The road network is relatively good, especially in the north of the country. There are few paved roads in the south. When driving through the desert, you should ensure that you have sufficient gas and water supplies. The vehicle must be absolutely roadworthy – there is hardly any help in the event of a breakdown. Right hand traffic.
Buses of SNTF run regularly between the larger cities. Tickets are relatively inexpensive and should be booked in advance. The bus stations are usually close to the city center. Group taxis (louages) mainly drive in northern Algeria. In addition, trucks and off-road vehicles transport paying passengers, especially to the southern parts of the country. Rental cars can be obtained from airports, hotels or larger cities, a local driver is recommended. Documents:International driving licence. For stays of up to three months, your own car can be taken duty-free. Insurance must be taken out at the border. Proof of ownership is required. A Carnet de Passage may be required if you use your own vehicle.
City traffic: Public buses run in Algiers and in the coastal region. In all cities there are numerous taxis with taximeters, often you share a taxi with other passengers. Surcharges apply after sunset.
What to see in the country
Algiers on the Algerian Mediterranean coast was an important port in ancient times. Due to the dry desert climate, many ruins (especially in Tipasa) have been preserved. Some of the buildings date from the mid-19th century when the French expanded Algiers into a business center in Africa. The mosques, the kasbah (Arab old town), the madrasas (Islamic universities) and the Turkish houses and palaces provide the oriental contrast. The Bardo Museum of Ethnology and the National Gallery are among the best museums in North Africa.
In Tipasa you can find well-preserved ruins from Roman, Punic and Christian times. The impressive gorges of Chiffa and the Kabylei attract many visitors.
To the east of Algiers is the turquoise coast with bays and long beaches.
On the west coast, near the second largest city in Algeria, Oran, holidaymakers will find beautiful beaches, historical sites and mosques. Oran is mainly a financial center, but there are several beautiful beaches with well-equipped hotels nearby.
From the 12th to the 16th century, Tlemcen was an important imperial city in the Algerian highlands. In the forested foothills of the Tell Atlas, it is pleasantly cool even in summer. The sights include the Great Mosque, Mansourah Fortress and Almohad walkways.
Constantine is located in the east of Algeria on a plateau that can only be reached via bridges that span the valley of the Rhumel River. The oldest inhabited city in the country was founded as Cirta by the Carthaginians. Here you will find the Ahmed Bey – Palace, one of the most beautiful palaces in the entire Maghreb and the Djamma El Kebir – Mosque.
The Sahara is certainly the most impressive landscape in Algeria. The desert is hardly habitable, but in winter it attracts a number of visitors from Europe. It can therefore be difficult to find accommodation in the oases during the travel season. The condition of the roads is usually good, but sandstorms in summer and rain in winter can severely affect traffic conditions.
Most Algerian oases do not correspond to the western idea of small palm-populated places, but are often quite large cities with gardens, mosques and shops. The starting point for Sahara tours is Laghouat or the five cities of the M’Zab, beautiful villages with white houses. The most famous of these places is probably Ghardaia.
The best way to explore the Hoggar Mountains and the western desert is from Tamanrasset, the largest city in southern Algeria. “Tam” is a popular winter holiday resort and petroleum center. The city is regularly visited by Tuareg camel caravans. The small oasis Djanet, a welcome stop for Sahara expeditions, is located on the Tassili N’Ajjer, the “plateau of the abyss”. This volcanic plain is crossed by gorges formed by rivers that have long since dried up or run underground. Some of the rock paintings found are over 6,000 years old.
Algeria – history
Before the 20th century
The modern state of Algeria is a relatively new creation. The name comes from the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century and described the area that was controlled by Algiers. Algiers broke away from the Ottoman Empire (which at its peak ruled much of the Mediterranean and North Africa) and founded an unusually stable military republic. This existed for almost 300 years until diplomatic problems with the French in the 19th century caused them to invade.
Before the arrival of the French, Algeria was known as the Barbary (a variation of the Berber) Coast, notorious for the pirates who attacked Christian merchant ships. The dreaded Khayr al-Din, better known as Barbarossa, was the first regent of Algiers during this period and held up to 25,000 Christian prisoners in the city. Piracy remained a serious problem until the US Navy defeated the pirate fleet in Algiers in 1815. However, it was only eradicated when the French attacked Algiers in 1830 and forced the ruling Dey (commander or governor) to surrender.
However, it was still 41 years before the French managed to expand their rule over the country. The main opposition came from the charismatic figure of Emir Abdelkader, the great hero of the Algerian nationalist movement. Abdelkader was a sheriff (descendant of the Prophet) who ruled much of the western and central inland in Algeria. His forces resisted the French for almost six years until they were defeated near Oujda in 1844; In 1846 Abdelkader finally surrendered and spent the rest of his life in exile, and in 1883 he died in Damascus.
The French colonial authorities began to change Algeria. Local culture was actively eliminated, mosques in the churches converted and the old medinas (Arab cities) torn down and replaced by streets. The symbol of the change was the conversion of the Great Mosque from Algiers into the Cathedral of St. Philippe. Under French rule, agricultural land was also widely distributed to European settlers (known as pieds-noirs) such as Italians, Maltese and Spaniards, as well as the French.
The struggles that developed into Algeria’s war of independence began on October 31, 1954 in Batna, led by the newly formed Front de Liberation National (FLN). The fight lasted seven years, with terror campaigns conducted by both Algerians and settlers. It cost at least a million Algerians until French President Charles de Gaulle approved a referendum on independence in March 1962. The result was six million votes in favor and only 16,000 against.
FLN candidate Ahmed Ben Bella became the first president of Algeria. He promised a “revolutionary Arab-Islamic state based on the principles of socialism and collective leadership at home as well as anti-imperialism abroad”. He was overthrown by Colonel Houari Boumedienne in 1965, which meant the country’s return to military rule. Boumédienne died in 1978, and the FLN replaced him with Colonel Chadli Benjedid, who was re-elected in 1984 and 1989.
There was very little political change under Boumédienne and Chadli, and little sign of opposition. It wasn’t until October 1988 that thousands of people protested on the streets against government austerity measures and food shortages. Between 160 and 600 people were killed. The government responded with promises to move towards a multi-party system. Local government elections in the spring of 1990 resulted in a landslide victory for the previously banned fundamentalist front Islamique du Salut (FIS; Islamic Salvation Front). The first round of the first Algerian multi-party parliamentary elections in December 1991 led to another clear victory for the FIS. The FLN only reached 15 of the 231 seats. At this point the army stepped in.
The civil war followed. New elections were held in 1995, but Islamic parties were not admitted. The government won amid widespread allegations of fraud. The hope for peace was not fulfilled, the war became even more brutal. The Groupes Islamiques Armés (GIA), provoked by French aid to the Algerian government, waged the war with a series of bombings and kidnappings on French soil. Finally, state security forces gained the upper hand. New elections in April 1999 led to a controversial victory for former Foreign Minister Abdelaziz Bouteflika after the opposition withdrew from the election on charges of defrauding the government.
Bouteflika quickly called for a referendum on an amnesty offer to the rebels. The war-weary Algerians voted 98% “yes” and by the end of 1999 many groups had given up their weapons. However, groups within the GIA continued to fight and were suspected of murdering FIS leader Abdelkader Hachani in October 1999. This was generally seen as an attempt to stop the peace process.
The current prime minister Ali Benflis (FLN) won the parliamentary elections in May 2002. The elections were characterized by violence and low turnout. Four parties boycotted the vote, including two of the major Berber parties. On top of the political problems, a violent earthquake hit northern Algeria in May 2003, killing more than 2,000 people. Militants from the Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC) were responsible for the kidnapping of 32 European travelers in the Algerian Sahara in 2003. Bouteflika was re-elected in 2004, and in 2005 voters supported government plans for a second amnesty for those involved in the post-1992 killings.
Terrorism remains a primary concern of Algeria. Although the GSPC announced in March 2005 that it might be ready to disarm and accept the amnesty’s government offer, in September 2006 it formally allied with Al Qaeda. In January 2007, the GSPC changed its name to Al Qaeda. Al Qaeda was responsible for the severe bombings in April 2007, in which dozens were killed and more than 100 people injured. It is believed that they are still located in the extreme southwest of Algeria, near the border with Mali.
Algiers (Arabic: Madīnat al-Jazā’ir, French Alger) is the capital of Algeria. It is the largest city in the country, industrial city, transport hub and cultural center with universities, numerous institutes, galleries and museums.
The image of the older districts of Algiers is shaped by the Kasbah, a 16th century castle, the Great Mosque from the 11th century and the mosque built in 1660, as well as buildings from the French colonial period (1830-1962). In 1982, the old town (kasbah) was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Worth seeing is the old town (kasbah) with its winding alleys, which was built predominantly in Turkish times and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Numerous mosques – including the Great Mosque completed in 1018 – as well as many palaces from the Moorish period and the citadel from the 16th century are located there.
From the harbor, open stairs and streets lead up to Boulevard Che Guevara (formerly Boulevard de la République), a 2000 meter long terrace with ornamental railings. It was built between 1860 and 1866 according to plans by Morton Peto. The terrace rests on a double row of about 350 arches.
On this boulevard are, among other things, the palatial buildings of the bank, the post office and the Palace of Justice, at the end of which the Place de la Kasbah (formerly Place de Gouvernement), and on the same the Archbishop’s Palace, an older magnificent Moorish building, and the mosque completed in 1660 Djamâa el Djedid.
Since 1845, an equestrian statue of Duke Ferdinand Philippe d’Orléans, designed by Charles Marochetti, has stood on the former Place de Gouvernement. After independence, the statue was transported to France in 1963 and erected in 1981 in the Neuilly-sur-Seine community near Paris.
To the west of Boulevard Che Guevara is the National Theater, and the former Governor’s Winter Palace and Catholic Cathedral are in the immediate vicinity. The Basilique Notre-Dame d’Afrique, accessible by cable car, is in the Z’ghara district and was completed in 1858.
The Monument des Martyrs (Maquam E’chahid) was built in 1984. The 90-meter-high structure is made up of three palm trees that rest on an extensive esplanade, where the “eternal flame” is located. It is dedicated to the memory of the victims of the struggle for national liberation.
freetime and recreation
About 20 kilometers west of Algiers are seaside resorts such as Sidi Fredj (ex-Sidi Ferruch), Palm Beach, Douaouda, Zéralda and Club des Pins (state residence). They are equipped with tourist complexes, Algerian and foreign restaurants, souvenir shops and supervised beaches. The opening of large hotel complexes such as “Hilton”, “El-Aurassi” and “El Djazair” is planned.
Algiers also has the country’s first water park. It is located east of the city and has an area of two hectares. There are swimming pools for adults and children as well as a go-kart track. An extension of a 1.5 hectare water park is planned.
To the east of the city is the Botanical Garden (El-Hamma) with a zoo and amusement park. It was created in 1832 according to plans by A. Hardy. Numerous exotic plants and gardens can be seen on the 80 hectare site.
In the modern part of the city there is an opera and many museums. The Musée Le Bardo houses enthnographical collections with fossils, tools and weapons from the old and new stone age as well as costumes and jewelry from all over the country. The National Museum of Fine Arts shows an exhibition of modern French painting.
The Museum of Classical Antiquities and Islamic Art houses a collection of Roman glass art and mosaics, Turkish colonial embroidery, as well as Moorish ceramics and wooden sculptures from the 11th to 15th centuries. The Nationalgalerie shows works by various orientalists as well as a collection of miniatures and sculptures.
The numerous markets and shops in Algiers offer a wide range of leather goods, Berber carpets, copper and brass items, local clothing and jewelry. Lacquered wicker as well as pottery and earthenware are sold from the Sahara. Trading is common in the markets and in the smaller shops. Rue Didouche Mourad is one of the main shopping streets.
In the Algerian capital there are two state-run arts and crafts centers with fixed prices, one of which is located at the airport. Shops generally open from 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. and from 2:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. from Saturday to Thursday.
Constantine ( Qusantina) is the third largest city in Algeria with 442,862 residents (as of January 1, 2007). It is the capital of the province of the same name, industrial city and transport hub. The city has a university, an Islamic college and medieval buildings such as the statue of the Roman emperor Constantine and the Ahmed Bey Palace.
The city is located in the east of the country on a mighty plateau, 650 meters above sea level, which can only be reached via bridges that span the river valley of the Rhumel.
As the richest and flourishing city of Numidia, it played an important role in ancient times. Its Carthaginian name was Karta (city), the Romans called it Cirta. It was founded by Micipsa, the son of Massinissa, with the help of Greek colonists. Made it the capital of Numidia.
It was characterized by the splendor of its public buildings and the number of its population before all other cities in northern Africa. In 113 BC The city was conquered by Jugurtha. It served as the main base for the Roman generals Caecilius Metellus Numidicus and Marius. Marius obtained 107 BC BC at Cirta a victory over Jugurtha.
When King Iuba I with the rest of his Pompeian party in 46 BC Gaius Iulius Caesar gave one of his partisans, Publius Sittius Nucerinus, part of the area of Cirta, which as a special colony was given Roman civil rights and the name Sittlanorum Colonia.
After that began the decay of the old Cirta, which was completely destroyed in 311 AD in the war of Maxentius against the governor of the province of Africa Domitius Alexander, who had proclaimed himself emperor. Constantine I the Great restored the city in 312 AD and gave it the name Constantina.
In 430 the city was conquered by the Wallals. From 534 to 697 it was part of the Byzantine Empire, from the 8th to the 15th century ruled by Berber and Arab dynasties. During the rule of the Ottoman Empire since 1529, the city was the seat of a Turkish governor.
On October 13, 1837, Constantine was conquered by French troops and, like the entire north of what is now Algeria, was incorporated into the French customs territory in 1851 and, both politically and economically, into French territory in 1865. The city has been part of the independent state of Algeria since 1962.
The main tourist attractions in Constantine are:
- Gustave Mercier Museum
- Ben Badis mosque
- Kasbah (old town)
- Emir Abdel Kader University
- Djamma El Kebir mosque
- Soumma Mausoleum
- Ahmed Bey Palace
- Ruins of the Roman aqueduct
- Statue of the Roman emperor Constantine
Djanet is an oasis town in southeastern Algeria (Illizi province) in the Sahara.
The oasis in southern Tassili n’Ajjer was a kind of main town for the Tuareg of the Kel Ajjer confederation until the late 19th century. The noble clan of Imanan resided in Djanet, who were described by European travelers as sultans of the northern Tuareg. The Imanan put their name in an etymological connection with the Islamic term “Imam” and attributed the origins of their gender to the Prophet Mohammed. This lineage is, of course, fictional and was used primarily to justify the sovereignty of the naturally weak rulers of the Tuareg (Imenokalin). The real weakness of the ruling class can be seen in the fact that his relatives were not allowed to leave Djanet and the real power was in the hands of the Uraghe family.
Until a few years ago, the place was only accessible via a slope. There is now an asphalt road from Illizi, which makes it very easy to get there. In the vicinity of the village there are many interesting rock paintings and rock engravings (very beautiful about 2/3 of the way between Illizi and Djanet on the Dider level. The Erg d’Admer about 20 km northwest of Djanet also invites you to visit. This belt of dunes with very high dunes can easily be crossed by car or motorcycle, a possibility to drive from Djanet to Tamanrassat.
The Hoggar Mountains are a mountain range of volcanic origin in southern Algeria.
Its highest mountain is the Tahat with 2,918 m (23 ° 17 ’19 “N, 5 ° 32′ 3” E). The Hoggar is known for its bizarre rocky landscapes. The area is mostly inhabited by Tuareg. The largest oasis in the Ahaggar region is Tamanrasset. Other inhabited oases are Ideles, Hirhafok, In Ecker and Tit.
Numerous rock carvings are known from the Ahaggar. Archaeological sites have documented the settlement since the Paleolithic.
The Kabylei (from Al Qabayel (“tribes”)) is the region in Algeria in which the vast majority of the Kabylen population speak the Berber language Kabyle. But there are also the names Tamurt Idurar (Land of the Mountains) or Tamurt Leqbayel (Land of the Kabylen) in use, especially of the population living here. The centers of Kabylei are the coastal cities of Tizi Ouzou and Bejaia east of Algiers. In recent times there have been clashes between the local population and the central government in Kabyle, mainly due to the non-recognition of Kabyle as an official language. After the bloody riots in 2001, which resulted in over 100 fatalities, the government gave in and established language as the national language, but not as the official language, in the constitution. Kabylei is one of the regions in which a large part of the population opposes Islamic fundamentalism. There have been many conversions to Christianity in recent years. Kabylei is one of the poorest areas in Algeria. The soil is rocky and mostly very dry and the farm work is not very profitable, but there are hardly any economic alternatives. Here the population with the highest density in the whole country is crowded. Unemployment is overwhelming and the government does little to change it. Most who want a better future emigrate to Europe (mostly France).
Oran (Arabic: Wahran) is a coastal city in the province of the same name in western Algeria.
It is the second largest city in the country after the capital Algiers and an important industrial city (metal, chemical, light, food industry). It has a port and an airport, is a cultural center with a university, theater and museums.
Oran is also the scene of the novel The Plague by the French writer Albert Camus and the hometown of the Raï. It is generally considered the most liberal and cosmopolitan of the Algerian cities.
Oran is located in the subtropical climate zone. The average annual temperature is 17.7 degrees Celsius, the average annual rainfall is 388 millimeters.
The warmest months are July and August with an average of 24.2 to 24.8 degrees Celsius, the coldest months December to February with 11.7 to 12.4 degrees Celsius on average.
Most precipitation falls from October to April with an average of 32 to 67 millimeters, the least from May to September with one to 19 millimeters on average.
Oran was probably founded in the 10th century by Muslim merchants from Andalusia. Since the fall of the Abdalwadid Empire, the city changed hands several times between Spain and the Corsairs, until 1830 France took possession of the city. Oran has been part of the independent state of Algeria since 1962.
Sidi El Houari: Oran is one of the busiest cities in western Algeria. Sidi El Houari is the symbol of Oran because it is the oldest district of Oran. This is where Andalusian seafarers founded their first settlement more than a thousand years ago, where Spaniards and Turks fought for supremacy for centuries.
Coast: The Orange region has an exceptional coastline and a large number of sandy beaches. The beaches are extended by a promenade called “Corniche”, which is about 10 kilometers long. The most famous are the beaches of Coralèse, Andalusia and Bousfer.
Santa Cruz: The fort of Santa Cruz, built by the Spanish in the 16th century, towers over the city at an altitude of almost 400m. You can see it everywhere in the city, on postcards, as a souvenir, in all forms: Santa Cruz.
Tamanrasset is a commercial and tourist town in the south of Algeria in the Sahara and capital of the province of Tamanrasset.
The political turmoil in the north never affected her. It lies at 1,400 m above sea level in the Hoggar Mountains. The average annual rainfall is 46 mm, spread over 16 rainy days. The maximum temperature is 28.5 ° C, the minimum temperature 14 ° C. The city has 76,000 residents, of whom the Tuareg are the largest population group. The city is the starting point for excursions to the Hoggar Mountains.
The Tassili n’Ajjer is a mountain range in the Sahara in southeast Algeria. It extends about 500 km from 26 ° 20 ‘N, 5 ° 00’ east-southeast to 24 ° 00 ‘N, 10 ° 00’. The highest point is the Dschebel Afao with 2,158 m at coordinates: 25 ° 10 ‘N, 8 ° 11’ E 25 ° 10 ‘N, 8 ° 11’ O. The next town is Djanet, which is about ten kilometers southeast of the chain.
In 1982 the Tassili n’Ajjer was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The chain consists mostly of sandstone. Erosion has formed almost 300 stone arches in the area, among other forms worth seeing.
Because of the high altitude and the water-storing properties of the sandstone, the vegetation is somewhat richer than in the surrounding desert. This includes a very light tree population from the endangered, endemic Sahara cypress and Sahara myrtle in the higher altitudes in the east of the area.
The chain is also known for the prehistoric rock paintings discovered by the African explorer Heinrich Barth in 1850 and other archaeological sites from the last ice age around 6000 years ago. At that time, the local climate was much wetter and more savannah than desert.
Much of the mountain range, including the cypresses and archaeological sites, are protected by a national park and biosphere reserve.
The residents of the highlands and surrounding desert areas belong to the Tuareg Confederation of Kel Ajjer (people of Ajjer). Their culture was first researched and described between 1850 and 1860 by the African researchers Heinrch Barth and Henri Duveyrier.
Tipasa (Arabic: Tibaza, formerly Tefessedt), is a city on the Algerian coast with 8,049 residents (as of January 1, 2007). It is the capital of the province of the same name and is located around 50 kilometers west of Algiers. The modern city, founded in 1857, is mainly known for its beautiful location and sandy coast.
Tipasa was founded by the Phoenicians and by the Romans under Emperor Claudius to a Roman military colony, later it became the municipium. The city was of considerable economic importance.
Christianity was introduced early and in the 3rd century Tipasa was a bishopric. However, most of the residents were still not Christians until – according to legend – St. Salsa, a Christian girl, threw the head of her snake idol into the sea in the 4th century, whereupon the angry population stoned her. Her body, miraculously returned from the sea, was buried in a small chapel on the hill above the harbor, which was later replaced by the basilica.
In 484 the vandal king Hunerich sent an Arian bishop to Tipasa; a large number of the residents then fled to Spain, and many of those who remained were cruelly persecuted.
After that, the city disappears from history, and the later Arabs do not seem to have settled here. The modern city of Tipasa was founded in 1857.
The ruins of the Roman city of Tipasa, located in the modern area of Tipasa, have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1982. It was built on three hills that tower above the sea. Most of the houses stood on the middle hill and are no longer preserved. However, there are ruins of three churches:
The Great Basilica and the Basilica Alexander on the western hill and the Basilica of St. Salsa on the eastern hill.
Two cemeteries, the baths, the theater, an amphitheater and the nymphaeum have also been preserved. The course of the city walls can be clearly seen and at the foot of the eastern hill there are remains of the ancient port.
The basilicas are surrounded by cemeteries full of numerous stone coffins decorated with mosaics.
The basilica of St. Salsa, excavated by Stéphane Gsell, consisted of a ship with two axes, a mosaic is also preserved here.
The Great Basilica served as a quarry for centuries, but the seven-axis blueprint can still be seen. Under the foundation of the church are graves carved out of the rock; one of them is circular with a diameter of 18 meters and offered space for 24 coffins.