Muslim Egypt 1
North Africa

Muslim Egypt Part I

From the Arab conquest to the British occupation. – After the conquest of Syria, Palestine, ‛lrāq and Mesopotamia by the Arabs (13-18 èg., 635-640 AD), the Byzantine dominion over Egypt came to be seriously threatened: yes he repeated the usual phenomenon in the history of Anterior Asia and North Africa, whereby each of the powers […]

Egypt Literature 5
North Africa

Egypt Literature Part V

Probably the Egyptian mythology was one of the richest in the world; but for now almost only allusions in the texts remain. Worthy of mention is the myth, preserved in three royal Theban tombs, which refers to the destruction of men, guilty of having offended the gods, and the retreat of these to heaven. Another, […]

Egypt Literature 4
North Africa

Egypt Literature Part IV

The number of medical texts is extremely small; but at least one of them has great merit because it introduces us to Egyptian thought. It is a papyrus purchased in Thebes in 1862 by Edwin Smith, now in New York. The copy goes back to the XIII dynasty; the language, however, seems to date back […]

Egypt Literature 3
North Africa

Egypt Literature Part III

According to, the temple of Heliopolis probably possessed the inscription bearing the annals, from the prehistoric period up to the fifth dynasty, of which a large fragment is kept in the museum of Palermo. The events are indicated year by year (only the most important), and the height of the flood, of fiscal interest, […]

Egypt Literature 2
North Africa

Egypt Literature Part II

According to, an essay of popular poetry can be seen, as we said, in the short songs with which the workers accompanied their labor; like, for example, that of the shepherd, when he pushes the flock on the soft fields to sink the seed, or of the threshers who urge the oxen, or of […]

Egypt Literature 1
North Africa

Egypt Literature Part I

Egyptian literature has above all historical documentary value. It was handed down by two kinds of documents: inscriptions painted or engraved on the walls of tombs, temples, on steles, statues, on obelisks, etc.; texts mostly written on papyrus sheets (which even reach the length of forty meters), or on its substitutes, shards of vases, limestone […]

Egypt History - Roman Age 4
North Africa

Egypt History – Roman Age Part IV

According to, Septimius Severus visited Egypt in the eighth year of his reign (200) coming from Palestine by the way of Pelusio. In Alexandria he visited the tomb of Alexander the Great and had a collection of manuscripts with a mystical content enclosed in the glass sarcophagus, which Ptolemy X had substituted for the […]

Egypt History - Roman Age 3
North Africa

Egypt History – Roman Age Part III

Since Alexandrian citizenship was the preliminary condition and like the vestibule of the Roman, the Alexandrians were fully aware of this privilege and asserted it, not only in front of the Egyptians and Jews, but also in their relations with the Roman officials. The Egyptians, who formed the vast majority of the population, fell into […]

Egypt History - Roman Age 2
North Africa

Egypt History – Roman Age Part II

Until very recently it was thought that at least the first century had constituted a period of renewed prosperity, but now a different opinion is gaining ground. It is undeniable that the changed conditions of Egypt, where the new conquerors never settled in notable groups and who never tried to Latinize, limiting themselves to occupying […]

Egypt History - Roman Age 1
North Africa

Egypt History – Roman Age Part I

According to, the death of Queen Cleopatra and Marc Antony eliminated any immediate or future difficulties for the definitive annexation of Egypt to Rome. I suppressed Antillo, who was the son of Antonio and Fulvia, and Cesarione, born of Caesar and Cleopatra; sent to Octavia the minor offspring of the “inimitable couple”, Augustus was […]