Trinidad and Tobago Geography

Trinidad and Tobago is a twin-island country located at the southernmost end of the Caribbean archipelago. It lies just off the northeastern coast of Venezuela and is bordered to the north by the Caribbean Sea. The geographic coordinates of Trinidad and Tobago are approximately 10° to 11°N latitude and 60° to 62°W longitude.



Trinidad and Tobago experience a tropical climate with two main seasons: the dry season, which typically lasts from January to May, and the wet season, which occurs from June to December. The islands enjoy warm temperatures year-round, with average highs ranging from 29°C to 32°C (84°F to 90°F).


The islands of Trinidad and Tobago are home to a diverse range of flora and fauna. The forests of Trinidad boast species such as the Trinidad piping guan and the red howler monkey, while Tobago’s coral reefs teem with marine life including colorful fish, sea turtles, and vibrant coral formations.

Longest Rivers

Trinidad and Tobago’s rivers are relatively short but crucial for the country’s ecosystem and agriculture. The Caroni River, located in Trinidad, is one of the longest rivers, known for its mangrove swamps and bird sanctuary, home to the Scarlet Ibis.

Highest Mountains

The highest peak in Trinidad and Tobago is the El Cerro del Aripo, standing at approximately 940 meters (3,084 feet) above sea level. Located in the Northern Range of Trinidad, it offers breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape.



The history of Trinidad and Tobago dates back thousands of years, with evidence of Amerindian settlement dating back to around 7,000 BCE. The islands were inhabited by various indigenous tribes, including the Arawaks and the Caribs, who lived off the land through hunting, fishing, and agriculture.

Colonial Era

The arrival of European explorers in the 15th century marked the beginning of colonial rule in Trinidad and Tobago. The islands were colonized by various European powers, including Spain, Britain, France, and the Netherlands, before ultimately becoming a British colony in the 19th century.

Independence and Modern Age

Trinidad and Tobago gained independence from Britain on August 31, 1962, becoming a sovereign nation within the Commonwealth. Since independence, the country has experienced significant economic growth and social development, emerging as a leading Caribbean nation.


Trinidad and Tobago has a diverse population of approximately 1.4 million people. The population consists of various ethnic groups, including Afro-Trinidadians, Indo-Trinidadians, Europeans, Chinese, and Indigenous peoples. The country is known for its rich cultural heritage, reflected in its music, cuisine, and festivals.

Administrative Divisions

Trinidad and Tobago is divided into fourteen regional corporations and two municipalities, each with its own local government authority. Here are the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. Port of Spain – Population: 38,000
  2. San Fernando – Population: 49,000
  3. Arima – Population: 33,000
  4. Chaguanas – Population: 97,000
  5. Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo – Population: 240,000
  6. Diego Martin – Population: 106,000
  7. Mayaro-Rio Claro – Population: 30,000
  8. Penal-Debe – Population: 210,000
  9. Point Fortin – Population: 20,000
  10. Princes Town – Population: 85,000
  11. Sangre Grande – Population: 75,000
  12. Siparia – Population: 86,000
  13. Tunapuna-Piarco – Population: 216,000
  14. Tobago – Population: 62,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Trinidad and Tobago by population are:

  1. Port of Spain
  2. San Fernando
  3. Chaguanas
  4. Arima
  5. Couva
  6. Tunapuna
  7. Scarborough
  8. Sangre Grande
  9. Princes Town
  10. Point Fortin

Education Systems

Education in Trinidad and Tobago is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 5 and 16. The country has a well-established education system, with primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of education. Notable universities include the University of the West Indies and the University of Trinidad and Tobago.



Trinidad and Tobago has two major international airports: Piarco International Airport in Trinidad and A.N.R. Robinson International Airport in Tobago. These airports serve as important gateways for both domestic and international travel.


The Port of Port of Spain is the largest and busiest port in Trinidad and Tobago, handling a wide range of cargo, including petroleum products, manufactured goods, and agricultural exports. Other major ports include Point Lisas Industrial Port Complex and the Port of Scarborough in Tobago.

Country Facts

  • Population: 1.4 million
  • Capital: Port of Spain
  • Language: English
  • Religion: Christianity, Hinduism, Islam
  • Race: Afro-Trinidadian, Indo-Trinidadian, Mixed, Others
  • Currency: Trinidad and Tobago Dollar (TTD)
  • ISO Country Codes: TT, TTO
  • International Calling Code: +1-868
  • Top-Level Domain: .tt