According to businesscarriers, the Republic of Uganda, a state in East Africa, is located in the equator region between 4 ° N. sh. and 1 ° 30ў S. sh., north of the lake. Victoria. It borders on the west with the Democratic Republic of the Congo ( DRC ), on the north with Sudan,in the east – with Kenya, in the south – with Rwanda and Tanzania. Area 241, 1 thousand square meters sq. km. Population 21.6 million _ _ _ man ( 1999 ). The capital is Kampala. British protectorate since 1894, Uganda gained independence in 1962.
Uganda. The capital is Kampala. Population – 21.6 million. _ _ man ( 1999 ). Population density – 90 people per 1 sq. km. km. Urban population – 13 %, rural – 87 %. Area – 241, 1 thousand square meters. sq. km. highest point _ – Peak Margerita ( 5109 m ). Main languages: English ( official ), Swahili, local African. Main religions: Christianity, traditional local beliefs, Islam. Administrative – territorial division – 45 regions. Currency: Ugandan shilling = 100 cents.National anthem: ” O Uganda, God bless you. “
Nature of Uganda
Uganda is located on the East African Plateau. Most of the country’s territory is located at altitudes from 900 to 1500 m above sea level. Uganda is bordered by mountains on almost all sides. In the east, on the border with Kenya, Mount Elgon rises (4321 m). In the north, the southernmost spurs of the Imatong Mountains, or Lolibai, enter the country. In the southwest, on the border with Rwanda and the DRC, there are the Virunga (Bufumbira) volcanoes. The most majestic blocky mountains – Rwenzori – rise along the western border. Located actually on the equator, they are a chain of snow-covered peaks; many of them exceed the mark of 4550 m, including the highest point of Uganda, Mount Margherita (5109 m). With the exception of the Rwenzori mountains, all other mountains in Uganda are of volcanic origin.
% of the entire territory of the country is occupied by inland waters and swamps. The second largest freshwater lake in the world, Victoria, stands out (area 69.5 thousand sq. km). Other lakes include Albert (5.6 thousand sq. km), Eduard and George in the west, Kyoga and Kvania with marshy shores in the center, and Bisina and Opet in the east. One of the sources of the Nile, the Victoria Nile, originates from Lake Victoria in the Jinji region. Rushing north, it overcomes several rapids and waterfalls and lakes Kyoga and Albert, and then flows under the name Albert Nile and crosses the border with Sudan. Other rivers are Aswa, Dopet, Kafu, Kagera, Katonga, Mayanja, Malaba and Pager.
Although English is the official language, it is only spoken by educated Ugandans. Swahili is more widely spoken as a language of interethnic communication, although it is not the native language for some ethnic groups. Domestically, Ugandans identify themselves by their mother tongue and the ethnic group with which they identify. Local languages, often obscure to other ethnic groups, belong to four families: Bantu, Nilotic, Para-Nilotic and Sudanese. According to the latest census, Ugandans belong to one of 34 ethnic groups, between which there are no clear boundaries. Inter-ethnic tensions, often exacerbated by linguistic differences, have repeatedly created tension in the country.
Approximately 2/3 of the population speaks Bantu languages. These are the peoples predominantly living in the southern part of the country: Baganda (18% of the total population), Banyankole (10%), Bakiga (8%) and Basoga (8%). 1/6 of Ugandans speak Nilotic languages. These are mainly residents of the northern regions, including Langi (6%) and Acholi (4%). Para-Nilotic languages are spoken in the northeast, where Teso (6%) and Karamojong (2.1%) stand out. The rest of the population speaks languages of the Sudanese group. This is primarily Lugbara (4%) and Madi (1%) in the north-west of the country.
Confessional structure. The 1995 constitution has no provision for a state religion. However, since British officials have favored the Protestants since colonial times, the latter still retain a privileged status, followed by the Catholics and then the Muslims. Over half of Ugandans are Christians, of which approx. 30% Catholic and 26% Protestant. Muslims, who make up approx. 7% of the population, as a rule, have less political influence. Most Ugandans respect local traditional beliefs, whether they consider themselves Muslims or Christians.
Education. The first schools in Uganda were created by missionaries who used the educational system adopted in Great Britain. Currently, schools are administered either by the state or by private individuals. There are much more people who want to study than the number of school places. The higher the status of an educational institution, the more difficult it is to get there. Over half of primary school graduates do not go on to secondary school, and more than a third of secondary school graduates are unable to continue their education. In 1997, the country’s government decided to allocate funds so that four children in each family could complete a course in primary school. This measure raised the number of primary school students to 5.3 million, double the 1996 figure and eight times the figure of the late 1960s. According to official data.
In 1996, the Ugandan government funded 8,550 primary schools with 2.7 million students. It also supervised 619 secondary schools and 156 third-level schools, as well as two state universities with a total number of students of 55.8 thousand people. During the 1990s, the number of private schools at all levels grew rapidly, and six private universities opened. Established in 1922, Makerere University in Kampala receives state support, however, tuition fees are charged from its students. Makerere University is the largest and most prestigious educational institution in Uganda. With the financial support of Saudi Arabia, the Islamic University has been operating in Mbale since 1988. Gradually, the advantage that males enjoyed when entering educational institutions is disappearing. However, in 1991 they made up 55% of students in primary schools, 62% in secondary schools and 76% in higher education. This disparity is also reflected in adult literacy rates; 73% of men and only 48% of women can read and write.
Healthcare. In 1994, diseases such as malaria, respiratory infections, intestinal helminths, and diarrhea posed the greatest threats to public health in Uganda. Due to unsanitary conditions and contaminated drinking water, the main cause of childhood diseases is the conditions in which the mother was in the prenatal and postnatal periods. In the 1970s, communicable diseases such as cholera, meningitis, dysentery, plague, and sleeping sickness increased due to poor health conditions. Since the mid-1980s, when the AIDS virus was identified, Uganda has been one of the countries most affected by the disease. Since the second half of the 1990s, there has been a decrease in the incidence of AIDS due to an active government campaign for public health education.
The healthcare system experienced significant difficulties in providing patients with medicines and providing medical care. Since the 1960s, the concept of health development has changed, priority has been given to rural areas. The country’s main hospital, Mulago, and other well-equipped and staffed mission hospitals are located in Kampala. Almost half of the children under two years of age have received preventive vaccinations. Yet every seventh child in the country dies before reaching the age of five.
Culture and art. In the modern culture of Uganda, a wide variety of traditional cultures are intricately combined with borrowings from Western countries, primarily from the UK. Since independence, Ugandan cultural figures have sought to create something integral and original in literature, theatrical and visual arts. The most famous work of Ugandan literature is Okot p’Bitek’s poem Song of Lavino, which laments the loss of traditional culture’s inherent integrity. The author of the Rulers of Buganda, the first study on the history of Uganda, was the first prime minister of Buganda, Apolo Kagwa.
The states that once existed on the territory of Uganda left a rich cultural heritage in the form of such works of art as national costumes, musical instruments, amulets, wicker baskets, shields, spears, and so on. Traditional dances are often shown on stage. The National Theater is a leading cultural center and patronizes theatrical and musical groups. He also oversees the National Dance Company of Uganda, which performs in the country and abroad. Uganda’s leading playwright Byron Kawadwa was assassinated during Amin’s regime for the political nature of his writings. at the School of Fine Arts. Margaret Trowell of Makerere University in Kampala, local artists are learning the techniques of European painting and sculpture. The folk music of Uganda is distinguished by its original style.
The Museum of Uganda, founded in 1908 in Kampala, collects materials on pre-colonial culture, archeology and natural history, and traditional music concerts are held. The Scientific Society of Uganda, founded in 1923, publishes articles on history, science, and culture in the pages of the Uganda Journal, which has been published since 1934. The journal Transition, published in Kampala since 1961, publishes sharp articles on political, literary, and cultural problems and has received recognition in Europe and the USA. Its publication in Uganda was banned under Amin’s regime.