North Africa

Sudan History

Three Kushite and Meroitic kingdoms, including the Napata and the Ballana culture, were established in the north and center of the territory that is now Sudan since ancient times; the region was also called as the Kingdom of Nubia and those civilizations flourished mainly on the river Nile from the first to the sixth cataract. These kingdoms were influenced by Ancient Egypt, and then they influenced the Egyptians.

In 350 the Meroitic kingdom was invaded and destroyed by the Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum. From then on, Nubia gave way to 3 new kingdoms: Nobatia, Makuria and Aloa, in which Christianity was the official religion.

Anglo-Egyptian rule

In 1820, Sudan fell under Egyptian rule when Mehmet Ali, the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, sent armies under his son Ismail Pasha and Mahommed Bey to conquer eastern Sudan. Soon Sudan would fall, like Egypt, into the UK’s sphere of influence.

In 1881 the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abdalla, self-proclaimed Mahdi (Messiah), tried to unify the tribes of the west and center of the country. He started a nationalist revolt against Egyptian rule culminating in the fall of Khartoum in 1885, in which British General Charles George Gordon was assassinated. The Mahdist state survived until being defeated in 1898 by an Anglo-Egyptian force under the command of Lord Horatio Kitchener. The British divided Sudan into two separate colonies, the north and the south, until 1956.

Independence

In February 1953, Egypt and the United Kingdom signed an agreement with a view to future self-government and self-determination for Sudan. The transition period towards independence began with the inauguration of the first parliament, in 1954. With the consent of the British and Egyptian governments, Sudan achieved independence on January 1, 1956, endowing itself with a provisional constitution.

The Arab government in Khartoum failed to honor promises made to the people of the south to create a federal system, leading to a rebellion by southern officials that led to a civil war that ended in 1972.

The 17 of November of 1958, after a period of economic hardship and partisan rivalries that led to the paralysis of government, Marshal Ibrahim Abbud carried out a coup that ended the parliamentary regime. A series of riots and strikes broke out in late October 1964 that led to the overthrow of the military regime. After a brief period of provisional government, the United National Front came to power in the April 1965 elections.

Between 1966 and 1969 a series of unstable governments succeeded one another that failed in their attempt to endow the country with a constitution and resolve internal dissidents, and on May 25, 1969 there was a new military coup.

The coup leader, General Yaffar al-Numeiry, became prime minister. The new regime abolished parliament and banned all political parties. Disputes between Marxist and non-Marxist factions within the military government led to a leftist military uprising in July 1971, led by the Communist Party of Sudan. Numeiry was removed from office, but three days later, with the support of Libya and Egypt, and the anti-communist elements of his government, he managed to regain power. A violent repression by the Communists followed.

Second Civil War

In September 1983, then-President Yaffar al-Numeiry created a federal state that included three federal states in South Sudan. But later he introduced sharia law and dissolved the three southern federal states, sparking the Second Sudanese Civil War.

Due to shortages of fuel and bread, a growing insurgency in the south, drought and famine, another military coup led by General Suwar al-Dahab occurred on April 6, 1985, which restored a civilian government. However, the civil war intensified and the economy continued to deteriorate. In 1989 General Omar el-Bashir became president and head of state, prime minister and head of the armed forces.

The second civil war displaced more than four million people from the south. Some fled to southern cities like Juba, others migrated north to cities like the capital Khartoum, and even to other neighboring countries. Western nations have since repeatedly accused the Arabs of carrying out the extermination of the black population of the south, particularly in the Darfur region.

Sudan is a country rich in oil and gas, and the United States government spent many of its forces, and above all, much of its money, to bring about the disintegration of the country. Israel and the United States encouraged civil war in that country, until in 2005, with the interventionist diplomacy of George W. Bush, an agreement was signed that supposedly would end up sweeping away all the frictions and differences between the North and the South. Under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in Naivasha, Kenya the south could decide whether or not it wanted to become an independent state.

Independence of South Sudan

The 15 of January of 2011 the referendum was held to approve the separation of Sudan South the rest of the country and become an independent state [1] , this consultation was approved by 98.83 percent of voters and accepted by the Sudanese President Omar Al Bashir, Vice President Salva Kiir, and the UN Security Council. The new state emerged on July 9, 2011.

The UN urged the north and south to quickly find agreements on border demarcation, security, citizenship, debts, assets, currency, and management of natural resources. He also demanded a settlement for the Abyei region, which he would decide, on his belonging to Sudan or South Sudan.

After independence, as a country located in Africa according to PHILOSOPHYNEARBY, South Sudan became a safe rearguard and support for the rebels fighting against the Doubtless government, particularly in the Darfur region [2] [3] . In April 2012, the South Sudanese Army militarily occupied the Heglig oil enclave, which led to a military confrontation with Sudan [4] and the immediate condemnation of the UN Security Council. Sudan responded militarily and a border conflict broke out between the two nations that in the first weeks left tens of thousands of displaced people. [5] . On May 3, South Sudan and Sudan agreed to cease hostilities along the border in application of a ceasefire proposed by the African Union and the United Nations [6] and a month later, on June 4, the ministers Defense authorities of both countries agreed to create a 10 km demilitarized zone on the common border [7] .

On August 4, the government of Sudan finally reached an agreement with that of South Sudan on the distribution between the two states of oil revenues from disputed border areas. As stipulated in South Sudan itself, it would pay Sudan $ 9.48 for each barrel of fuel exported through the pipelines that remained in Sudanese territory after the South Sudanese separation in 2011. The agreement was reached after Sudan abandoned its demand of 36 dollars for each barrel and South Sudan decided to increase its offer of 1.87 dollars [8] . On Thursday, September 27, South Sudan signed in Addis Ababa with Sudan a series of agreements on security and cooperation. However, they were unable to resolve the dispute over the status of the disputed area of Abyei or on the demarcation of its border.

Sudan History