North Africa

South Sudan Society

Despite the fact that the country – according to World Bank data – received about 10 billion dollars from oil exports between 2005 and 2012, basic services are scarce. The country’s government allocates funds to primary and secondary education and to hospitals in some major cities, but its contribution is minimal. In some of these centers, non-governmental organizations even pay the salaries of professionals and medicines, and sometimes they are also the only providers of textbooks and other school supplies. [14]

Health

The country is extremely affected by long years of war, which is reflected in the health indicators of the population, which has serious problems accessing health services and even drinking water [20] . Life expectancy at birth is just 59 years and the probability of dying before reaching the fifth birthday is 108 for every 1,000 live births [21] .

There is widespread chronic food insecurity and acute malnutrition is above the emergency threshold of more than 20% in some areas. Less than half of children have received routine immunization, under-5 mortality remains very high, reaching more than 100 per 1,000 live births, and maternal mortality is 2,054 per 100,000 live births. [22] .

Outbreaks of violence in the country (between government troops and rebel militia groups, sometimes for ethnic reasons) and high levels of tension along the border with the Sudan (Abyei crisis) have led to the displacement of more than 300,000 people. Clashes in the states of Kordofan and the Blue Nile In southern Sudan, the influx of refugees into South Sudan has increased, currently numbering more than 18,000. This, together with some 350,000 returnees from Sudan, has exacerbated a situation in which there are practically no social services at all. of economic opportunities to support integration. Humanitarian interventions face challenges due to price increases and shortages of essential products for fuel, all due to intermittent trade blockades along the border, coupled with ongoing insecurity [22] .

According to data from the World Health Organization for 2008, there were 2.8 doctors, 0.2 stomatologists, 0.1 pharmacists, 8.4 nurses and midwives, and 7.3 hospital beds for every 10,000 residents [23] .

Education

Across Sudan, access to primary education is linked to the economic capacity of households. In the poorest parts of the South, less than 1% of children complete primary school [24] . At the time of independence the problems in the field of education were considerable: more than a million children of primary school age were out of school and enrollment rates in secondary education were among the lowest in the world.

The government has undertaken fundamental reforms, in particular the homogenization of curricula and curricula in primary education and the rationalization of payrolls in the public sector. At the request of the Ministry of Education of South Sudan, the International Institute for Educational Planning of UNESCO (IIEP) and UNICEF provided technical assistance to the Strategic Plan for the education sector [25]

In South Sudan there is only one university, the National University of Juba, which is located in the suburbs of Juba, the capital.

Sports

In South Sudan, a country located in Africa according to AREACODESEXPLORER, many traditional and modern games and sports in general, in particular wrestling and mock battles, are very popular. Traditional sports were mostly practiced after the harvest seasons to celebrate the end of the agricultural seasons.

In the modern era, some South Sudanese have excelled in international sport. Luol Deng is a basketball star of the Chicago Bulls of the American NBA. Other leading players in international basketball from South Sudan include Manute Bol, Deng Ajou, Duany Kueth, Gai Deng and Ater Majok. Majak Daw is on his way to becoming the first South Sudanese to be a professional Australian football player, having signed with the AFL North Melbourne Kangaroos (Australian Soccer League) in late 2009.

Soccer is also becoming increasingly popular in South Sudan and there are many initiatives by the Government and other private partners to promote the sport and improve the level of play. One such initiative is the South Sudan Youth Sports Association (SSYSA), which is already giving soccer training sessions in places like Yuba, where children train to become good soccer players. Top players are expected to emerge from these makeshift soccer fields, both in the short and long term. In recognition of these efforts with youth soccer, the country recently hosted youth soccer competitions. His national team is affiliated with CAF, but not with FIFA, he celebrated his first match on Of July October of 2011 against Tusker FC of Kenya losing at home by 1: 3 [26] [27] . Nor is the country a member of the IOC, which does not have official representation in South Sudan. [28]

In July 2012, the International Olympic Committee denied South Sudan the right to participate in the London 2012 Olympic Games under its national banner, stating that it had to do so under the IOC flag, which caused unrest in the country. [29]The first athlete to represent the country in an Olympic Games, although under the IOC flag, was Guor Marial, a marathoner living in the United States but of South Sudanese nationality [30] .

Human rights

The 2012 conflict with Sudan caused a major humanitarian crisis in a country without a tradition of self-government. Extrajudicial killings, torture, rape, intimidation, corruption in the justice system and displacement of the civilian population have occurred as a result of fighting between the national army and Sudanese forces. The government of Sudan, in its confrontation with South Sudan – harbors and supports renegade armed fighters who are known to carry out attacks in South Sudan, mostly due to ethnic conflicts [15] . Hostilities between government forces and insurgents, supported by Sudan, had caused in March 2013, tens of thousands of displaced people, who survived thanks to the help of the World Food Program (WFP)[31]

In the poorest communities in the south of the country, girls are considered a bargaining chip and are commonly exchanged for livestock. Child marriage is considered legitimate by many families who see the delivery of a minor as a source of dowry income. The South Sudan Children’s Law, 2008, sets the minimum age for marriage at 18 years, and establishes a penalty of up to seven years in prison for those who violate the norm; but in practice it is not fulfilled in a population where ancestral customs are more important.

According to the United Nations (UN), women and girls remain particularly vulnerable in South Sudan. After a civil war that lasted 21 years, they were victims of the worst human rights abuses, including rapes and kidnappings [32] .

South Sudan Society