North Africa

Libya State Overview

According to HYPERRESTAURANT, Libya, in Arabic Al-Libya, is a North African nation, bounded to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the east by Egypt, to the southeast by Sudan, to the south by Chad and Nigeria, to the west by Algeria and to the northwest by Tunisia, made up of the ancient historical regions of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezán.

The country became an Italian colony on October 18, 1912 through the Treaty of Lausanne. Under the name of the Libyan Statute, its territory was expanded with French consents. Despite opposition from the southern Senussite tribes, whose opposition movement gradually became the national consciousness of the future Libyan state, the country was controlled by Italy until the end of World War II. Later occupied by the allies, some provinces were under English, French and American control.

In 1947 Italy officially renounced its colonial possession and after bloody confrontations the United Nations agreed to the independence of Libya in 1949, which would become effective on January 1, 1952. King Idris I, proclaimed the independence of some provinces recently joined the 24 of December of 1951 became King of Libya until 1969, year in which was overthrown by a coup military.

In 1969, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi took power and established a government known as Yamahiriyya (State of the Masses).

In 2011 the political situation in the country deteriorated rapidly, due to a revolt that started in Benghazi, allegedly prepared by the French secret services. The revolt started a civil war. On 19 March as as 2011 United States, France and Britainbegan a military offensive. The attacks were covered by a UN resolution calling for the creation of a no-fly zone to “protect” Libyan civilians.

The offensive then passed under the control of NATO and the rebels advanced with the support of the bombings, until at the end of August they took Tripoli the capital. On September 20, the new Libyan flag was raised at the UN, despite the fact that the so-called National Transitional Council had not yet managed to form a government.

On October 20, Muammar Gaddafi was lynched while trying to leave Sirte, under fire from rebels and NATO for several days. His body taken to Misrata, where it was publicly displayed in a refrigerated chamber, along with that of his son Mutassim Gaddafi and the former head of the armed forces Abu Bakr Younu Jabr ; to finally be buried in an anonymous tomb in the desert.

A month after the assassination of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, the National Transitional Council (CNT) approved the formation of the new interim cabinet, which would be tasked with drafting a new Constitution and preparing elections in June 2012.

Demography

Libya’s native population is primarily of Berber and Arab origin, representing 97% of the population. The minorities, the remaining 3%, are made up of Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Tunisians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks and Indians.

Libya has a population of 6,530,000, with an annual growth rate of 3.7%, which is among the highest in Africa. The population density is 3.1 residents / km2. 86% of the population is urban and 14% rural. Life expectancy at birth is 65 years, being higher in the female population (67 years) than in the male population (63%. The infant mortality rate is 58 deaths per thousand births. The literacy rate is 76 ,2 %.

Religion

The Islam is the religion of the state, practice 97% of people. Around 1840 there was a reform movement based on a deep understanding of the Koran (the holy book of Muslims) and the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad.

Idiom

The official language is Arabic. The English and Italian are widely understood in the major cities.

Transport

The roads that run mainly along the coast, connecting Tripoli with Tunis, Benghazi, Tobruk and Alexandria; there are also roads that connect with cities in the southeast and southwest. In total, Libya has approximately 83,200 km of roads, of which 52% are paved. Libyan Arab Airlines offers both domestic and international flights. Several international airlines cover the service between Tripoli and Benghazi. The main ports are Tripoli, Benghazi, Tobruk, Misratah.

Communications

Libya’s postal and telecommunications systems are nationalized. The internal telephone system consists of a microwave system, coaxial cable and a satellite system with 14 earth stations. The country has 21 radio stations and 1.2 million receivers; with 12 television stations and 730,000 sets. Libya has four newspapers, including Al-Fajr al-Jadid, which is published in Tripoli, with an approximate circulation of 71,000.

Culture

Libyan cultural life revolves around its popular traditions. They celebrate music and dance festivals.

One of the most important festivals is the Ghadames, which is celebrated every year that due to its authenticity offers the best of opportunities to know the cultural reality of Libya, it is the international folk festival, which is considered one of the most important tourist events of Libya. During the days that the festival lasts, different and very varied artistic manifestations related to the life and customs of this area of the country are concentrated in the old city of Ghadames. Among other performances and activities you can observe folk dances and samples of local crafts.

Music

Traditional music is typically Arabic, it is based on the combination of flutes and drums.

Main festivities

The main holidays are Islam, and their own national holidays.

Official holidays are:

  • March 2 (Declaration of Jamahiriya).
  • June 11 (evacuation of foreign military bases).
  • September 1 (Revolution Day)
  • October 26 (Day of Mourning); This day the Libyans assassinated or exiled by Italy are commemorated, even the borders are closed and international calls cannot be made.

Typical meals

Libyan cuisine has couscous as its main dish. As a legacy of the Italian domination, numerous pasta dishes have remained in their diet, the star being the macaron. Lamb meat is the most traditional, followed by camel. Almost all meals are accompanied by a spicy soup that usually contains pasta and lamb. Inside you can try typical Saharan dishes such as ftaat made with wheat cakes covered in meat and sauce. On the coast you can eat top quality fish.

Libya State Overview