North Africa

History of Morocco

Although the archaeological remains found demonstrate the human presence in the region since 20,000 BC. n. e., it will not be until between 5000 and 4000 BC. n. and. that the first artistic creations will appear. The engravings were made by the Berbers of the north, while the paintings were made by artists belonging to peoples who later migrated to the Niger basin. Already much more documented is the presence of Berber communities that already populated this region around 1000 BC. n. and. For centuries, the Berbers remained impenetrable to the domination and influence of other expansionist peoples that settled on their shores:

  • Phenicia
  • Roman Empire (40-395),
  • Christianity (in the 4th century), an important cultural revolution that marked the future of many other nearby towns. Christianity was created as a religion in Alexandria (Egypt) around the year 320.
  • Western Roman Empire (395-411),
  • vandals (411-534),
  • Byzantine Empire (534-683)

Only from the seventh century of the first Arab invaders will this cultural impermeability begin to change and, little by little, Islam will be the cultural guide of these populations throughout the following centuries, and up to the present day. At the same time as bearers of the new culture, the Arab emigrants and conquerors would seize political control, relegating the indigenous population to less socially relevant positions.

  • Umayyad Caliphate (683-750)
  • Abbasid Caliphate (750-789)
  • Emirate of Sijilmassa (772-909)
  • Idrisid dynasty (789-974)
  • Fatimid Caliphate (920-925, 927-937, 974-987)
  • Caliphate of Córdoba (927-929, 930-935, 936-1000)
  • Maghrawa (987-1070)
  • Taifa of Malaga (1026-1075, Tangier)
  • Almoravid Empire (1070-1147)
  • Almohad Caliphate (1125-1269)
  • Benimerines (1225-1465)
  • Hafsidas (1269-1273 Tangier)
  • Emirate of Tangier (1421-1471)
  • Kingdom of Fez (1472-1554)

But it appears that again the indigenous Berber population of the south remained largely faithful to their traditional beliefs and culture.

Possessions of Spain

  • Ifni (1476-1524)
  • Tangier and Mazagan (1580-1640)
  • Arzila (1580-1589)
  • Larache (1610-1689)
  • Mehdiya (1614-1681)

Portugal’s possessions:

  • Alcacer Ceguer (1458-1550)
  • Tangier (1471-1580, 1640-1661)
  • Arzila (1471-1550, 1577-1580)
  • Safi (1488-1541)
  • Agadir (1505-1541)
  • Aguz (1506-1525), Mogador (1506-1510)
  • Azemmour (1513-1541)
  • Mazagan (1514-1580, 1640-1769)

Saadian Empire (1511-1659)

Republic of Salé (1619-1666)

Sultanate of Talifalet

  • 1631-1635 Muhammad I
  • 1635-1664 Muhammad II

Kingdom of England (Tangier 1661-1684)

Sultanate of Talifalet and Morocco 1664-1672 ar-Rashid

In 1666, they occupy Salé and Rabet, ending the pirate republic.

On February 6, 1684, they occupy a city of Tangier abandoned by the British.

1672-1727 Isma’il

On April 30, 1681, they occupy the Spanish city of San Miguel de Ultramar (Mehdiya)

On December 6, 1689, they occupy the Spanish city of Larache.

From 1694 to 1724, he put the Spanish city of Ceuta under siege (even during the War of the Spanish Succession).

From 1725 to 1728, he put the Spanish city of Ceuta under siege.

· 1727-1728 Ahmad II· 1728 Abd al-Malik

· 1728-1729 Ahmad II (restored)

· 1729-1734 Abdallah

· 1734-1736 ‘Ali II

· 1736 Abdallah (restored)

· 1736-1738 Muhammad II

· 1738-1740 al-Mustadi

· 1740-1745 Abdallah (re-restored)

· 1745 al-Mustadi (restored)

· 1745-1748 Abdallah (re-re-restored)

· 1748 Muhammed III· 1748-1757 Abdallah (re-re-re-restored)

· 1757-1790 Muhammed III (restored)

· 1790-1792 Yazid (in Fez) and Hisham (in Marrakesh)

· 1792-1795 Suleiman (in Fez) and Hisham (in Marrakesh)

· 1795-1822 Suleiman

· 1822-1859 Abd al-Rahman

· 1859-1873 Mohammad IV

· 1873-1894 Hassan I

· 1894-1908 Abd al-Aziz

· 1908-1912 Mulay Hafiz

On March 11, 1769, they occupy the Portuguese city of Mazagán.

From December 9, 1774 to March 19, 1775, they put the Spanish city of Melilla under siege.

From 1790 to 1791, they put the Spanish city of Ceuta under siege.

On April 26, 1860, Ifni ceded to Spain.

Protectorates (1912-1956)

On March 30, 1912, by the Treaty of Fez, as a country located in Africa according to NEOVIDEOGAMES, Morocco recognizes Spanish sovereignty over Spanish African possessions, protectorates are created, one to the north, where Spain claims historical rights, and another to the south, where France prevails.

  • Tangier, international city.
  • French Protectorate of Morocco
  • Spanish Protectorate of Morocco, was formed by an area in the Rif, to which an area south of the Draa River was also added, in which Morocco did not control.
  • 1923-1926 Republic of the Rif, proclaimed by Abd el-Krim.

Sultans:

  • 1912-1927 Mulay Yusuf
  • 1927-1953 Muhammad V
  • 1953-1955 Muhammad “VI”

Kingdom of Morocco

1955-1961 Muhammad V

On March 2, 1956, he obtained independence from the French protectorate.

On April 7, 1956, Spain handed over its area to him.

On October 29, 1956, Tangier was annexed.

On August 14, 1957, he was proclaimed the kingdom.

On April 1, 1958, Spain handed him Tarfaya.

1961-1999 Hassan II

On January 4, 1969, Spain gave him Ifni.

The most important point in Moroccan politics since the mid-70s has been the dispute over the territory of the Sahara formerly known as Spanish Sahara and today, as. For two decades, the forces of the Moroccan army and those of the Polisario Front (Front for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Río de Oro) maintained their armed confrontations. On November 14, 1975, by the Madrid Accords, it was agreed to be part of the administration (not sovereignty) of Spanish Sahara, on November 27 the invasion of Spanish Sahara began. On February 26, 1976, Spain evacuated Western Sahara (in which the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was proclaimed. On April 14, 1976, treaty of Rabat, for the partition of Western Sahara with Mauritania (2/3 north for Morocco, and 1/3 for Mauritania). On August 11, 1979, Morocco invaded part of the Mauritanian area after the Mauritanian resignation in favor of the SADR, on August 5.

The attempt to find a settlement with the UN mediation led to the ceasefire on September 6, 1991 as the first step towards holding a referendum on the self-determination of the territory.

The most prominent internal opposition to King Hassan for many years was the Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), without forgetting more recently created parties such as the Islamist organization Istiqlal, the monarchical Constitutional Union, the centrist Rassemblement des Nationaux Indépendents, or the Mouvement Populaire. More recently, fundamentalist Islamist groups have emerged that Hassan has kept in check through a combination of repression and political concessions.

Recent history

On the death of King Hassan II, in July 1999, he was succeeded by his son, King Mohammed VI, who promised to end the corruption of the administration and promote the development of democratic freedoms.

However, the impediments placed by the Kingdom of Morocco have made it impossible for it to take place until 2003. On July 11, 2002, Morocco invades the island of Perejil, to which Spain organizes Operation Romeo-Sierra to liberate it on the 20th of that same month.

In its foreign policy, it has combined its approach towards the countries of the European Union as well as its participation in regional politics, especially through its participation as a member of the Union of the Arab Maghreb.

The 21 of February of 2011, following a call made through the social network Facebook which was followed by various NGOs and organizations thousands of Moroccans took to the streets to protest against the government of Mohammed VI. The main demands of the protesters were the implementation of political reforms and the limitation of the king’s powers. The protests in Morocco were part of a massive movement that shook the Arab world since January 2011 and caused the fall of the governments of Tunisia and Egypt, as well as more or less serious disturbances in Jordan, Yemen, Bahrain and a bloody civil war in Libya.

After the peaceful protests on Sunday , February 21, serious disturbances occurred in which five people died and 128 were injured among civilians and law enforcement officials. The main clashes occurred in the cities of Al Hoceima, Larache and Marrakech. During the same, public buildings, banking agencies, shops and cars were set on fire. While this was happening, the Moroccan army carried out a strong military deployment in Western Sahara, preventing a popular uprising of the Sarahuí people [1] .

On March 9, the king informed public opinion of his intention to carry out political reforms in the country, beginning with a constitutional reform that would include strengthening the figure of the Prime Minister and expanding the powers of Parliament [2] .

History of Morocco