Egypt Geography

By | November 17, 2021

As a country located in Africa according to ZIPCODESEXPLORER, Egypt is bordered to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the south by Sudan, to the east by Israel and the Red Sea, and to the west by Libya.


The relief of Egypt is characterized by the absence of mountainous elevations except in the Sinai peninsula, where Mount Katerina reaches 2,637 meters. altitude and on the coast of the Red Sea, with Mount Yebel Oda of 2259 meters. There are four distinct regions: the southern region, flooded by the waters of the lake formed by the Aswan Dam, the central region of the country that runs from Aswan to Cairo; the northern region, where the great delta of the Nile is located, and the desert region west of the Nile valley that extends to Libya.

The land area under cultivation or populated is less than 10%. This territory comprises the valley and delta of the Nile River, and a series of oases. More than 90% of the territory is desert areas, among which are the Libyan desert to the west, a part of the Sahara and the Arabian desert (also called the Eastern desert), which borders the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez, in the this.

The Libyan desert (also known as the Western desert) comprises a wide area called the Great Sea of Sand, where several depressions are located with altitudes below sea level, such as Al-Qattara, of 18,000 km², which reaches a depth of 133 m below sea level, the lowest point in Africa. Also here are the oases of Siwah, Jarijah, Barîyah, [[Farafirah and Dajilah. Most of the Arabian desert occupies a plateau that rises gradually eastward from the Nile Valley, reaching an altitude of 610 m, interrupted along the Red Sea coast by jagged peaks that reach 2,000 m in altitude..

Rivers and lakes

The Nile River, which crosses the country from south to north to flow into the Mediterranean, has been the main source of wealth that has allowed the development of empires, cultures and civilizations throughout the history of Egypt. 6700 km in length, the longest river in the world.
The Lake Nasser, a huge reservoir formed by the Aswan High Dam, extends south across the Sudan border. It has a length of 480 km and a maximum width of 16 km.
However, the Aswan Dam has reduced the flow of the Nile, causing the salty waters of the Mediterranean to penetrate the terrain along the coast near the mouth of the Nile. A series of four shallow, brackish lakes stretches across the delta area in contact with the sea. Another large lake, Birkat Qarun, lies inland, in the desert, north of the city of El Fayoum. Geographically and traditionally, the Nile Valley is divided into two regions, Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. The first is made up of the territory surrounding the delta, and the second of the valley south of Cairo.


Egypt’s climate is characterized by a warm season, from May to September, and a cold season, between November and March. The extreme temperatures in both seasons do not vary much due to the prevailing north winds. In the coastal region, average temperatures range from a maximum of 37.2ºC to a minimum of 13.9ºC. In the desert there is a great thermal amplitude, since the annual average throughout the day varies between 45.6 ºC during the day and 5.6 ºC at night. During winter temperatures often reach 0 ºC. The wettest area is on the Mediterranean coast, where annual precipitation reaches an average of 200 mm, decreasing rapidly towards the south; Cairo receives only 25mm of rainfall per year, and in many places in the desert it only rains once in several years.


The vegetation of Egypt is largely limited to the delta and the Nile valley, as well as existing oases. Of the few native trees, the most widespread is the Date Palm ; There are also Sycamore, Tamarisk, Acacias and Algarrobos. The species that have been introduced from other areas are the Cypress, the Elm, the Eucalyptus, the Mimosa and the Myrtle, as well as various kinds of fruit trees. The alluvial soils of Egypt, especially in the delta, allow the development of a wide variety of plants, such as vines, many kinds of fruit and vegetable products and flowers such as Lotus, Jasmine and Rose. Various grasses and various species of hawthorn are common in arid regions. The Papyrus, which was very abundant along the banks of the Nile, today is limited to the extreme south of the country.


Because of its arid climate, Egypt has few indigenous animals. The Springboks are in the wilderness, and the fox of the desert, the hyena, the jackal, the Wild Ass, the Jabali, the Jerboa and Mongoose live in several areas, mainly in the delta and the mountains along the sea Red. Reptiles include lizards and various kinds of poisonous snakes, such as the Asp Viper and the Horned Viper.

The Crocodile and the Hippopotamus, widespread in ancient times in the lower Nile and the delta, today are limited to the Upper Nile. Birds are abundant, especially in the delta and the Nile valley; The country has 153 known species, among which are some sunbirds, the Oropéndola golden, egret, Hoopoe, plovers, pelicans, flamingos, herons, storks, quails and Common Snipe. The birds of prey present in Egypt are Eagles, Hawks, Vultures, Owls, Milano and Hawks.

Many species of insects are found; Beetles, Mosquitoes, Flies and Fleas are very abundant ; in the desert there are Scorpions. In the Nile and in the deltaic lakes there are about 70 species of fish. Currently, 9.9% (2007) of the territory of Egypt is protected. The valuable lands dedicated to agricultural exploitation are threatened by the phenomenon of desertification. Virtually all agricultural production is obtained by irrigation and soil salinization is becoming a problem.

Egypt Geography