According to businesscarriers, Sudan is one of the underdeveloped countries and is one of the poorest countries in the world. GDP $12.2 billion, per capita income $385 (2001). Inflation – 10% (2001). The basis of the economy is agriculture, which employs approx. 80% of the economically active population. It accounts for 45% of GDP. The share of industry in GDP is 22.8% (it employs about 5% of the population), the service sector – 31.6% (2002).
Despite the large mineral resources, Sudan’s industry is generally underdeveloped. Main industries: mining (8.7% of GDP), manufacturing (7.9% of GDP), light and food, pharmaceutical, production of building materials. There is a serious shortage of electricity in the country.
Oil production and refining are developing most dynamically. Oil reserves are estimated to exceed 3 billion barrels. In 1999, the construction of a 1610 km oil pipeline was completed, connecting the South Sudanese Heglik field with a terminal on the Red Sea (Port Sudan). The annual oil production is approx. 13 million tons (2002). Part of the oil produced goes to an oil refinery on the outskirts of Khartoum. Extraction, export and processing of part of the oil allowed the government to meet the country’s domestic needs for petroleum products and save up to $350 million, which was annually spent on imports. It also gave the government the opportunity to announce as early as Ser. 2000 to reduce prices by 27% for gasoline and 17% for gasoline and kerosene.
The extraction of chrome ore is approx. 4 thousand tons (1996), gold 3700 kg. Iron ore reserves are determined to be more than 500 million tons.
Manufacturing industry (1999): flour – 532 thousand tons, sugar – 622 thousand, vegetable oil – 100 thousand, cement – 267 thousand tons, textiles – 35 million yards, shoes – 48 million pairs, cigarettes – 122 tons.
Electricity used in industry, agriculture and everyday life is produced at 12 thermal and 3 hydroelectric power stations. The average electricity consumption per capita is approx. 53 kWh. More than 80% of electricity is generated by power plants in the central region of Sudan. It became the core of a unified power system linking all the hydroelectric power plants at the Sennar Dam, in Hashm El-Gerb and in Er Roseires with transformer substations in the provinces of Khartoum, Upper Nile and Northern. The central region accounts for more than 80% of total energy consumption. The share of the southern and western regions is 2%. Industry consumes 39% of all electricity produced, the domestic sector – 37%, the rest falls on agriculture, transport and other sectors of the economy. The share of the electric power industry in GDP is 3%.
Sudan has significant land holdings. The area of cultivated land is 12.5 million hectares, but irrigated land is only 1.9 million hectares (15%). Pastures occupy 56 million hectares, forests occupy 46.5 million hectares.
The main commercial crop is cotton, mainly fine-fibered. The main cotton-producing center is Gezira (80% of the harvest). The share of cotton in total exports is falling. Assembled approx. 100 thousand tons (1998). Peanuts are also grown (4th place in Africa) – 800 thousand tons, sesame – 165 thousand, wheat – 597 thousand, sorghum – 4891 thousand tons, as well as millet, beans, barley, corn. An important place in agricultural production is occupied by fruit crops (mangoes, oranges, grapefruits, lemons, bananas, etc.), melons (watermelons, melons) and vegetables (onions, tomatoes, etc.).
Animal husbandry is the second traditional branch of agriculture. Sudan has the richest livestock resources: productive pastures, large areas, and a large number of livestock. The number of cattle – 20-22.5 million heads, sheep – 19-20 million, goats – 13.5-14 million, camels – 3 million, donkeys – 650-670 thousand, horses – 20-21 thousand. poultry approx. 30 million
Timber reserves are estimated at 1.3 billion m3 in wild forests and 8 million m3 in forest parks. Logging (1997, thousand m3): saw logs, plywood and sleeper logs – 110, other industrial wood – 2092, fuel wood -14 111, total: 16 313; gum arabic – 25.
Sudan has significant fish resources. The sources are the Nile and its tributaries, various reservoirs and the Red Sea. The catch was (thousand tons in live weight, 1997): Nile fish – 11, other freshwater – 31, marine – 5, inland waters – 42, Red Sea – 5.
The length of railways is 5503 km. The main export-import highway connects Khartoum and Port Sudan – 787 km. Of great importance are the branches of Wadi Halfa – Atbara – Khartoum – El Obeid, El Obeid – Nyala, Babanus – Wau.
Road transport provides 60% of domestic traffic. The total length of motor roads is 48 thousand km, however, with a hard surface of 2335 km. The most important highway is Khartoum – Port Sudan (1186 km).
The only seaport in Sudan, Port Sudan was founded back in 1912. Its throughput is 8 million tons per year. Work is underway to increase its capacity to 13 million tons. In 1999, a cargo terminal was built for oil export between Port Sudan and the abandoned port of Suakin. With the financial assistance of European countries, work is underway to create a new port of Suakin, 60 km from Port Sudan, with a capacity of up to 1.5 million tons of cargo per year. Merchant fleet 19 vessels with a carrying capacity of 43,078 tons.
River transport has not received much development. The length of Sudan’s navigation route is 4068 km, of which 1723 km are open for navigation all year round. Both the White Nile and the Blue Nile are used for navigation. The White Nile is the most important route connecting the northern and central regions of the country with the southern ones. The Blue Nile is of lesser importance, as it is not possible to transport long distances along it. In Sudan, there is a Sudanese-Egyptian joint venture operating on Lake Nasser between the cities of Wadi Halfa in Sudan and Aswan in Egypt.