The foreign relations of the People’s Republic of China, commonly known as China, guide the way China interacts with foreign countries, expressing its political and economic vulnerabilities and values. China’s foreign policy and strategic thinking have great influence as a major country and a would-be superpower. China officially claims that it “steadfastly pursues a foreign policy of peaceful and independent approach.” “This policy is mainly aimed at safeguarding China’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, creating an international environment conducive to China’s reform, opening-up and modernization construction, while maintaining world peace and advancing common development.” An example of foreign policy decisions under the light of “sovereignty and territorial integrity” is the People’s Republic of China not engaging in diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the Republic of China ( Taiwan ), which the People’s Republic of China does not recognize as an independent nation.
According to whicheverhealth, China is a member of many international organizations, holding key positions such as permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council. The People’s Republic of China’s diplomatic goals sought expansionism in achieving an international communist revolution before the end of the Cultural Revolution. The People’s Republic of China replaced the Republic of China as the recognized government of “China” in the United Nations after UN General Assembly Resolution 2758 in the early 1970s. As a nuclear power, China has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty at the United Nations. China’s foreign policy today is summarized as strategic relations with neighboring countries and the world’s great powers with the aim of striving for China’s national interest, and creating a favorable environment for China’s domestic development in order to permanently compete in the world in the long term.
Foreign policy institutions
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs implements China’s foreign policy like most other countries. However, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is subordinate to the leading foreign affairs group that decides to make decisions.
Much of China’s foreign policy is formulated in think tanks that sponsor and oversee it, but formally independently of the government, unlike most other countries. One distinctive aspect of US-China relations is that much discussion of foreign policy occurs among interlocutors who form think tanks, because these discussions are informal and thus generally freer and less restricted than discussions among government officials. China is also characterized by a separate body of Chinese strategic thought and international relations theory that is different from Western theory.
Since 2014, the Pew Research Center has indicated that 21 of the countries surveyed have a positive (50% or higher) view of China. The ten countries that view China most positively are Pakistan (78%), Tanzania (77%), Bangladesh (77%), Malaysia (74%), Kenya (74%), Thailand (72%), and Senegal (71%). Nigeria (70%), Venezuela (67%), and Indonesia (66%). Meanwhile, the top ten countries surveyed with a negative view of China (less than 50%) are: Japan (7%), Vietnam (16%), Turkey (21%), Italy (26%), and Germany (28%). %), India (31%), Poland (32%), Jordan (35%), the United States (35%), and Colombia (38%). Chinese people’s view of their country was 96% positive.
At a national meeting on diplomacy in August 2004, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Hu Jintao affirmed that China would pursue its “independent foreign policy of peaceful development,” stressing the need for a peaceful and stable international environment, especially among China’s neighbors, that would promote “mutually beneficial cooperation.” » and «joint development». This political line has not varied much in intent since the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949, but the rhetoric has varied in intensity to reflect the reversal of domestic politics.
In 2007, Foreign Ministry spokesman Chen Gang made a statement about China’s eight-point diplomatic philosophy:
- China will not seek hegemony. Chinais still a developing country and does not have the resources to seek hegemony. Even if China becomes a developed country, it will not seek hegemony.
- China will not practice force politics and will not interfere in the internal affairs of other countries. China will not impose its own ideology on other countries.
- China believes that all countries, large and small, should be treated equally and respect each other. All countries should consult on all issues and resolve them on the basis of equal participation. No country should bully others on the basis of strength.
- China will give its opinion on every issue in international affairs, and every issue will have its own merit, and will not have double standards. China will not have two policies: one for itself and one for others. China believes that it cannot do to others what it does not want others to do to it.
- China calls on all countries to handle their relations on the basis of the UN Charter and the rules governing international relations. China calls for intensified international cooperation and opposes unilateralism. China should not undermine the dignity and authority of the United Nations, nor should China impose its desires above the UN Charter, international law and customs.
- China calls for peaceful negotiation and consultation to resolve its international disputes. China does not resort to force or the threat of its use in resolving international disputes. China maintains a reasonable national military buildup to defend its sovereignty and territorial integrity. It is not intended for expansion, and China does not seek conquest or aggression.
- China firmly opposes terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. China is a responsible member of the international community. Regarding international treaties, China faithfully abides by all international treaties. China never acts according to double standards, choosing treaties that suit it and ignoring those that it does not need.
- China respects the diversity of civilizations and the world at large. China invites civilizations to exchange culturally, learn from each other, and complement each other with their strengths. China opposes clashes and confrontations between civilizations, and does not associate any particular ethnic group or religion with terrorism.
In 2011, Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi outlined plans for an “integrated approach” that would serve China’s economic development.
In 2016, during the Sixth Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Party General Secretary Xi Jinping made efforts for greater transparency in the decision-making process of local government, which also represents his efforts in creating a positive image of the Chinese Communist Party abroad.
Xi’s foreign policy causes significant perceived hostility from the West toward Chinese government officials, and shifts within China’s diplomatic bureaucracy have been cited as factors leading to its emergence. Xi’s policy is often known as “wolf warrior diplomacy.”
At their annual meeting on June 13, 2021, leaders from the Group of Seven democratic countries sharply criticized China for a series of violations. The Group of Seven countries – the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Canada and Japan – have been reluctant to act separately. Under pressure from US President Joe Biden, they unanimously agreed to a sharp criticism, followed the next day by a similarly strong unanimous attack by NATO members. Criticisms have focused on the mistreatment of the Uighur Muslim minority, the systematic destruction of democracy in Hong Kong, repeated military threats against Taiwan, unfair trade practices, and a lack of transparency regarding the origins of Covid-19. China has rejected all criticism as matters of domestic policy. On the other hand, countries critical of China are essential to the Chinese economy in terms of jobs, investments, and purchases of huge amounts of exports.